As you probably guessed, Czech surnames, much like English surnames, are adopted by women once they marry. However, did you know women change the spelling due to the gender adjectives found in the Czech language?
If the male name translates to a masculine adjective, the spelling of the female's last name will be the spelling of the equivalent feminine adjective. Because women almost always have a surname that is a feminine adjective, the ending is changed by adding the suffix -ova if the husband's surname translates to a noun.
Popular Czech Last Names on FamilyEducation: Novak