The Russian aristocracy began using last names to differentiate between two people of the same name in the 17th century, while peasants didn't begin adopting surnames until the feudal system was abolished late in the 19th century.
Many Russian last names are patronymic. There are very few names derived from occupations, but a lot of names derived from animals. For example, Volkov means wolf and Bykov means bull.
Most Popular Russian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Volkov, Romanoff, Kuznetsov
Image: Red Square and St. Basil Cathedral in Moscow, Russia